In the last issue, we talked about how the civil war in the Republic went to the next round - the troops of the triumvirate were in full swing preparing to land in Greece, where Brutus and Cassius had entrenched themselves, who had managed to travel through many eastern provinces very useful and informative. Cassius, having received a text message from his partner, was going to the rescue.
Roman law formed the basis of the lawmaking of all ancient civilization, and subsequently became the foundation on which the legal thought of the peoples of the Romano-Germanic group inhabiting Continental Europe was formed. Until now, they are a compulsory subject of study at relevant universities around the world, bearing a special philosophical, historical and cultural significance.
Travelers who come to Venice (Venezia) are embraced by the desire to immerse themselves in the mysterious atmosphere of this ancient and, in a sense, magical city. Its centuries-old history is full of mysteries and imbued with the special spirit of aristocracy. In this regard, the stories about the Doges of Venice, the rulers of the Republic, who provided greatness, prosperity and glory to their city-state, seem very interesting.
Until the 20th century, the history of ancient sculpture was built in chronological sequence - first Greece (the heyday of art of the 5th-4th centuries BC), then Rome (the peak of the rise of the 1st-2nd centuries BC). The art of Ancient Rome (Roma) was considered a late expression of Greek cultural traditions, the completion of the work of the period of antiquity.
In the fourth issue, the relationship between the two remaining triumvirs, Octavian and Mark Anthony, grew tense before the declaration of open war. The Senate, at the instigation of Guy, announced it not to Mark himself, but to Cleopatra, but everyone knew very well what that meant - the loving king of the East would not leave her woman in trouble, so there would still be a mass slaughter.
In the second issue, we described how, thanks to the efforts of soldiers, who were tired and bored of peace and material security, we managed to avoid a war between the two triumviers, after which one of them sailed off to Egypt to hang out, and the second remained in Italy to deal with the pirate separatist Pompey. Octavian zealously used the freshly built ships with a new wunderwaffe, invented by his gunsmiths, Pompey snapped back, using much more experience in tactics at sea, but after some time the Roman troops still managed to land on the enemy island (although they hollowed out a lot of ships in the process) .
In the first issue, we told readers about the new difficulties that confronted Octavian, and the fun holiday of life that unexpectedly fell to Anthony. While Mark was having a great time in Egypt with Cleopatra, the “son of Caesar” was solving the sudden problems with his brother. Lucius Anthony, having entered Rome and showered in the capital, retreated to the north, hoping to gain supporters there and to oppose Octavian already as it should, but not with small forces, but did not have time.
In 42 BC, Octavian and Anthony finally finally resolved the matter with Brutus and Cassius, after which they were able to triumphantly announce a vengeance for God-like Caesar. In theory, the triumvirate could be dismissed on this - the program was completed, but history knows very few cases when someone who took power, voluntarily refused it.
“To be born again or to be reborn” (renasci) - this is how Latin translates the name of an era of world significance in the development of culture. The Italian Renaissance or Renaissance (Italian: Rinascimento) paved the bridge between antiquity, the Middle Ages and the New Age. The reason for the prosperity of art lies in the readiness of the country's best minds for progressive changes.
Everyone knows that the traditional date of the founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus is April 21, 753 BC. However, a new study indicates that Rome is much older. Archaeologists claim that they found evidence that in the capital of Italy there was some kind of infrastructure, which was distributed at least 100 years before the founding of Rome.
The history of Italy helps tourists better understand its attractions. The masterpieces of its great masters are a separate story, but they cannot be appreciated without understanding how art is inseparable from the way of life of the peoples inhabiting the Apennine Peninsula. Italy is the name of the southern lands of the small ancient people of Italians or Italians, which are mentioned in ancient letters as "Vitellium", "ιταλοί", "vituli", etc.
How did the biggest slave revolt in history begin under the leadership of Spartacus? 73 year BC. The Roman consul Lucius Licinius Lucullus cuts himself with Tsar Mithridates VI in the north of modern Turkey, the last emperor of the Shunga state in India becomes a victim of a conspiracy, Xuan-di comes to power in China, King Herod is born in Judea (yes, the same one).
Gaius Julius Caesar (Gaius Iulius Caesar) - commander, politician, writer, dictator, high priest of Ancient Rome. He came from the ancient Roman clan of the ruling class and consistently sought all government posts, led the line of political opposition to the senatorial aristocracy. He was merciful, but sent to execution a number of his main opponents.
Works of literature, sculpture, applied art tell about the customs of the inhabitants of Ancient Rome, they can be judged on the basis of preserved business and friendly letters, works of historians and philosophers. The heyday of the Strength of Ancient Rome is associated with important ideals and principles that have been brought up in every free citizen from early childhood: Fidelity to the state; Serving the community; Harmony of mind and body; The ideals of beauty and love, etc.
Traveling around Rome and Italy and admiring the preserved sights, each tourist ponders why such a strong civilization ceased to exist. The decline and collapse of the Roman Empire cannot be reduced to one single reason. External enemies One version relates the death of the Roman Empire to 410 AD, when Gothic tribes led by Alaric invaded the territory of Rome.
Water in ancient Rome was an integral part of the life of citizens. Fountains adorning cities, baths in which the Romans kept their bodies clean and relaxed, Navahia (sea battles), where the naval battles were staged - all this required providing the city with a huge amount of water. The Roman emperors, trying to satisfy the needs of their citizens, earn their support and decorate the Eternal City, did not spare resources for the construction of water supply systems.
The goddess Juno (Giunone) - the character of ancient Roman mythology, the patroness of marriage, family, motherhood and the feminine. According to legend, Juno was seduced by her brother Jupiter, turning into a cuckoo, they got married and began to rule together. The right hand of the goddess was her sister Minerva - the goddess of wisdom and art.
Slavery of Ancient Rome is one of the dark pages in its history, a controversial section of social life of several centuries BC. But modern "work" largely derives from the "slavery" of that era, and most professions arose under the slave system. Slave - free labor, loose change, a sign of prosperity and power of its owners.
In their last issue, Roman politicians, in their intrigues and debates, jumped to the point where Mark Anthony, Octavian and Lepidus, who joined them, came to the capital with the army and took away by force what could not be obtained by persuasion. The educated triumvirate quickly dashed off a completely legal justification of his own existence, which distinguishes him from the first version of the “council of three”, a sample of Caesar, Pompey and Crassus - there were no laws on its creation, and formally this meeting of respected people was nothing more than an ordinary friendly party .
In the last issue, the legions of the two consuls and the Octavian who joined them went on the warpath against Mark Anthony, who, in turn, besieged one of the conspirators and killers of Caesar - Decimus Brutus, who had consolidated his position in the city of Mutin and looked sadly at what was happening. If the consuls Girtius and Panza thought that citizen Anthony was cool and knew only how to file state budgets and appropriate the treasury, then they were cruelly mistaken.
In the last issue, we described how the situation steadily escalated to a bright white glow, and all interested persons (and there were so many of them there!) Attended to the gathering of troops. In addition to Cicero, who decided to sit out the horrors of the division of power in the country. As part of the increase in the number of units, Octavian drove to the south of Italy, where Caesar's campaign veterans and current legionnaires settled, who for some reason did not trample the sand in distant Libya or Parthia.